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The present situation and development of the tea wholesale market in China
2017/9/2 15:15:07

First, introduction

The origin of tea tea wholesale market is the main place to areas from producing and circulation of the main channel, is the main place of farmers directly involved in and feel the changes in the market, to guide farmers production, is of great importance to the realization of technology diffusion and rational adjustment of production structure. National Bureau of statistics data show that since 2008 China's billion yuan tea market turnover increased from 12 billion 590 million yuan in 2008 increased to 26 billion 895 million yuan in 2015, at the same time, tea wholesale market turnover growth, increased from 11 billion 393 million yuan in 2008 to 24 billion 964 million yuan in 2015. In addition to 2014, the trade volume of tea market and tea wholesale market increased by 1.13% and 0.23%, respectively, and the annual growth rate of the other years was between 8%-23%.

With the field of circulation modernization, the increasing degree of internationalization, has undergone tremendous changes in the wholesale market is facing internal and external environment, especially the rapid development of electronic commerce for the connection of producers and consumers more direct wholesale market products distribution function is gradually weakening. In order to cope with the impact of internal and external environment, improve market function, promote transformation and upgrading, and better serve the development of tea industry, it is necessary to monitor the development trend of tea wholesale market in real time. Accordingly, Department of economic industry technology system of tea industry country (hereinafter referred to as the "room" of the tea industry economic development area) tea wholesale market of major tea producing provinces of our country has carried on the questionnaire survey, this paper according to the investigation in 2015 analysis of the status quo, China tea wholesale market problems, and put forward the further development of countermeasures, in order to facilitate the healthy development of China's tea industry.

Two. The development of tea wholesale market in China

The monitoring point of this tea wholesale market in Jiangsu, Zhejiang, covering Fujian, Hubei, Chongqing, Hunan, Henan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Shaanxi, Guangxi and other major tea producing provinces, a total of 30 tea wholesale market, of which 26 belong to the professional tea wholesale market, the other 4 companies a comprehensive wholesale market. Survey data show that the monitoring points of tea wholesale market total turnover of more than 100 million yuan (including tea trading and non tea trading), leaves in 2014 wholesale market turnover increased slightly compared to 2013, the individual market decline, most market growth resumed in 2015, consistent with the statistical data of the National Bureau of statistics.

From the transaction object, of which 4 market transactions only a single tea, 7 Green Tea and Black Tea market transactions, there are 20 market transactions in 3 or more of the tea categories; from the transaction scope, the 25 trading market in addition to tea, tea also carry out transactions; from the type of wholesale market business look, there are more than 20 markets accounted for 50% of the total wholesale business; from the main body of market situation, monitoring the tea wholesale market in booth number 22317, the number of fixed operation is 8909, compared with 2014, the total number of fixed pitch down 23.4%, fixed business households an increase of 68.5%.

Three. The main characteristics of the tea wholesale market in China

1. diversification of market investment subject and diversification of ownership form

From the source of investment funds market, mainly rely on bank loans to build the tea wholesale market accounted for the highest, 26%; followed by the way of portfolio investment, through the combination of government funding, bank loans, foreign investment and financing partners and other sources of funds are access to investment funds, and another 14% of the tea wholesale market mainly rely on foreign investment investment. From the perspective of ownership property of the market, the proportion of privately run enterprises and joint-stock enterprises in the tea wholesale market monitored in 2015 is the highest, which is 34% and 37%, respectively. All the towns and villages share 3% of the market, and the rest of the market is state-owned or collective owned.

2. diversified products, wide range of market radiation

In order to adapt to the changes in the consumption structure of tea, the product structure of the wholesale market of origin also tends to diversify. "12th Five-Year" period, in addition to Green Tea, Black Tea, Oolong Tea and other traditional market mainstream consumer products, black tea, white tea, yellow tea tea has become a hot consumer, accordingly, China's tea wholesale market of the tea business category gradually diversified, but the market is still trading in Green Tea and Black Tea second transaction. Is Oolong Tea, Pu'er Tea and black tea, scented tea is again. According to the survey data, 32% of the wholesale markets of tea producing areas are radiated to all provinces and cities in the country. 33% of the tea producing wholesale market merchants come from the provinces and neighboring provinces, and the main services to the provinces and counties are 14% and 16% respectively.

The 3. transaction mode is gradually e-commerce, and the participation of e-commerce is constantly improved

In order to cope with the impact of e-commerce, more than 70% of the tea wholesale markets have carried out e-commerce transactions. From the electronic commerce tea wholesale market participation, since 2014, to participate in business 22% tea wholesale market by Tmall, Taobao and other Jingdong, and the way of cooperation, 13% tea wholesale market in other ways to participate in e-commerce transactions, 34% tea wholesale market began to focus on strengthening the business electricity supplier training, the other 27% of the wholesale market not to carry out business.

Four. The main problems existing in China's tea wholesale market

1. single market function

In the tea wholesale market, the market function is ranked. The first is the "trade match", accounting for 35%, and the "information release" takes up 28%; the logistics organization accounts for 16%; the "price formation" accounts for 11%, and the "order management" and "unified settlement" function account for 7% and 3% respectively. It can be seen that most tea wholesale markets still have traditional functions such as commodity distribution, information dissemination, price formation and so on. However, the functions of modern wholesale market such as exhibition, forum, business negotiation, brand operation and promotion service have not yet been carried out. From the view of logistics and distribution, the proportion of self built logistics in the wholesale market is relatively low, only 3%, and the proportion of self transportation and third party logistics is 35% and 24% respectively. With the innovation and emergence of modern circulation mode, the function of the traditional wholesale market will not meet its need to participate in the modern circulation mode.

2. limited market development space limited

The early established wholesale market is mainly to provide trading venues. As China's tea growing area continues to increase, the scale of tea wholesale market will further expand, and the earlier construction of wholesale market is relatively low, and the supporting facilities are not perfect. At present, more than half of the tea wholesale market has not according to the product and functional area classification, part of the market flow, logistics in tea trading season crowded and chaotic, reduced the market image and grade, resulting in relatively poor shopping experience. Because of the limited market space, the market is limited to further enhance the service function and optimize the layout.

3. a single market profit model

At present, more than half of the tea wholesale market mainly depends on booth rent, and the rest is mainly based on collecting transaction fees and collecting commissions. The profit model in the industry boom in the market with more merchants to ensure profitability, but industry fluctuates, the market downturn, a single source of income will inevitably occur between the merchants and the market against the game and will weaken the basis of mutual trust, relationship to fragile, is not conducive to long-term stable operation the merchant, and the market is not conducive to the sustainable development.

4, the impact of e-commerce begins to show

With the maturity of Internet technology and the improvement of modern logistics and distribution system, e-commerce has been infiltrating into various fields. China's tea wholesale market has been affected to varying degrees. In 2015, 3% of the tea wholesale market believed that the electricity supplier had great influence on it. 66% of the wholesale market did not think much of the impact. 31% of the wholesale tea market believed that the electricity supplier had no influence on its market.

Five. The direction of the transformation of the tea wholesale market and the suggestions for its development

1. expand the service function and enhance the radiation ability

The modern wholesale market should have comprehensive functions such as distributed transaction, information service, price formation, technology diffusion, leisure and Expo, security guarantee, settlement credit and so on. Therefore, in order to adapt to the future wholesale market construction and serve the target of merchants and consumers in the market, we should enhance our sense of service and adapt ourselves to the change of wholesale market's internal and external environment, from simple site providers to functional providers. On the hardware, we must constantly improve the market infrastructure and supporting service facilities, set up solid technical support for market development, carry out technological innovation and transformation of business philosophy on software. At the same time, when selling products, we will provide businesses and customers with all the services they need, such as general services such as consulting, testing, measuring, communication, credit guarantee, information, logistics, settlement, distribution and other deep-seated services. We should enhance the operation and promotion function of the market, display the corporate image and product brand, enhance the reputation and influence of the market, enhance the brand value of the wholesale market, and build the core competitiveness of the wholesale market.

2. optimize the market layout and improve the transaction efficiency

First of all, to standardize management, completely subvert the "tea Street" type of loose, low-level management mode, abandon the business field, fight the enemy separately disorderly competition situation. Secondly, we should divide the trading area according to the product categories of the market and classify the trading area according to the different categories and quality levels, so as to embody the principle of high quality and high price, reduce the search cost of consumers and save transaction costs. Thirdly, in the aspect of merchant service, we should set up comprehensive service hall, connect with other functional departments, provide one-stop service for merchants, do all kinds of formalities without creating market, and create a relaxed and stable business environment.

3. optimize the profit model and provide value-added services

We should change the single and low level profit mode, provide value-added services, adopt a multi-level and structured profit mode to provide more extensive, high-quality and efficient services for businesses, and effectively bring economic benefits to businesses. We should strengthen the market trading of commodities, open the platform strategy of "market +", adopt new or joint construction mode, and set up a cross regional tea market project to expand the market radiation and drive capability. The introduction of a variety of trading patterns, the positive application of electronic information system to improve the construction of cyber source, to expand the scope of the use of electronic information to enhance the commodity trading volume; further improve the management system of electronic information, information release and reduce acquisition costs, expand the living space of the professional wholesale market.

4. improve the e-commerce platform and improve the application level

At present, there are not many professional tea marketing platforms in China, and the influence is weak. The online sales of tea products mostly rely on Yu Taobao, Jingdong and other comprehensive e-commerce platforms. Operation and maintenance of e-commerce platform.


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[3] Lv Wenjun, Chen Xia. Practice and Thinking on speeding up the transformation and upgrading of electronic commerce in Xinchang China tea city [J]. Chinese tea processing, 2016 (03): 61-63.

(the "2017 tea" Chinese abstract from the Sixth Period -- "present situation and development of domestic tea wholesale market of" first author: Chen Fu Qiao Tea Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences) this article reprinted from Chinese Tea Institute